A qualified project must go through standard design, and a high-quality project is inseparable from scientific and rigorous design. Scientific design refers to a large number of relevant standards, completes a series of calculations, grasps all equipment performance and combines the experience of the designer. With scientific design, the construction of the project can be guaranteed smoothly and reliably In particular, there are many factors affecting the quality of professional audio engineering, which is a highly comprehensive technology. With the development of science and technology and the improvement of equipment level, the cost of the project is getting higher and higher. Therefore, it is necessary to put an end to projects without design, standards and drawings. Since engineering design is so important, how about engineering design? This should start from the determination principle of engineering design, that is, the design principle of the important five links involved in engineering design, which is described in several aspects below.
( 1 )总体规划的原则
(1) principle of overall planning
The master plan is the first and most important work of a project. It requires the designer to give full consideration to it with clear thinking. At this time, unreasonable and incomplete design will affect the quality of the project. The master plan includes the location of the project, the sound of the hall, the requirements of the architectural decoration, the target location of the sound and light, the safety rationality of the project and the impact on the environment Ring.
The positioning of the project should be based on the principle of seeking things from facts, not pursuing unrealistic high-grade and fancy, and not neglecting the important functions that affect the quality of the project;
It is of great significance that the sound construction of hall should follow the work of making sound equipment show the best effect in the corresponding environment, and it can also test the level of the designer most, which will be discussed later;
The requirements of architectural decoration should be based on the principle of favorable sound and light effect, and the target orientation of sound and light should be based on giving full play to the performance of the equipment to achieve the purpose of beautiful sound quality and good light effect;
The safety rationality of the project and its impact on the environment should be based on the principle of strictly abiding by the laws and regulations of the relevant national departments, especially the safety of fire prevention, rational use of electricity and avoidance of environmental pollution.
(2) the principle of determining whether to build a voice or not
The sound construction of professional sound engineering is mainly the sound construction of hall. The reason for the different level of the same equipment is generally the different sound construction conditions. No matter how excellent the equipment is, once it is placed in the environment with poor sound construction conditions, it will certainly not achieve good results, and the sound construction requirements will be different for the different use requirements of the project, and will also be affected by the quality of architectural decoration The hall with good sound effect should have reasonable reverberation, good sound diffusion, no sound focus, no audible vibration noise, no sound shadow, etc. the requirements of sound construction cannot be carried out by the sound designer unilaterally, it needs the strong coordination of the architectural decoration technicians, but because the design ideas and requirements of both sides are different, it needs the overall sound engineering The planning work shall be started as early as possible, and the contact between the two parties shall be maintained frequently, so as to achieve mutual understanding and close cooperation. The selection of reverberation time can be determined according to the nature and use of the project. If necessary, the experience of some excellent projects shall be used for reference.
(3) determination principle of sound reinforcement form
The so-called sound reinforcement means to use mono, stereo or add surround sound system for sound reinforcement. Generally speaking, single head sound reinforcement should be used in places where the requirements are not high, not only for the sake of saving money, but also for most background music sound reinforcement methods, but to achieve stereo effect in the whole sound reinforcement area is quite difficult It is required that the equipment configuration should be reasonable in the design, the positioning of loudspeakers should consider their electroacoustic self, and finally it needs to be adjusted according to the specific situation of the sound field; the surround sound system comes from the movie sound reinforcement system, which has special requirements for the environment and equipment, and there are special standards at home and abroad, strictly speaking, the movie surround sound system is independent of the general sound Sound system, so if you don't know much about the movie surround sound, don't rashly add the so-called surround sound system. The unreasonable surround sound configuration will not only fail to form surround sound, but also destroy the sound field and interfere with the stereo playing, which will result in half the effort. However, considering the rise of household AV system in recent years, more and more people are interested in the so-called "surround sound" Voice "has requirements, so it can be simply configured in karaoke private rooms, small movie halls and other places with low requirements.
(4) determination principle of light form
Compared with sound, the professional level of lighting is still higher, so there are not many books and articles in general, and only some technical articles are more theoretical and less practical. The reason is that the classification of lighting is like the difference between performance equipment and recording equipment, with different purposes, different places, and completely different lighting design and configuration and work quantities, As far as stage performance lighting is concerned, there are relevant majors in the school of drama; while film and television lighting is introduced separately in the school of film and broadcasting; as for the effect lighting used in art performance and entertainment, there are more patterns in it. If we invite the lighting engineers of art groups, they will tell a lot of topics about lighting, which requires that in the professional sound engineering The design of lighting must be careful, especially when it comes to stage and special purpose projects, designers must study carefully